Basis of Preparation of the Financial Statements

Statement of Compliance

These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”).

Basis of Accounting

Group companies maintain their accounting records in their local currency and prepare their statutory financial statements in accordance with the regulations on accounting and reporting of the country in which the particular subsidiary is resident. The consolidated financial statements are based on the statutory accounting records, with adjustments and reclassifications for the purpose of fair presentation in compliance with IFRS. The principal adjustments relate to (1) expense and revenue recognition, (2) valuation of unrecoverable assets, (3) depreciation and valuation of property, plant and equipment, (4) accounting for income taxes, (5) use of fair values, (6) business combinations and (7) translation to the presentation currency.

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention, except as disclosed in the accounting policies below. For example, property, plant and equipment are accounted for at deemed cost at the date of transition to IFRS.

All Group companies and associates have a December 31 accounting year-end.

Functional and Presentation Currency

The presentation currency for the purpose of these consolidated financial statements of the Group is the US dollar because the presentation in US dollars is convenient for the major current and potential users of the Group’s financial statements.

The functional currency of the Company and its subsidiaries located in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Switzerland and Cyprus is the Russian rouble. The functional currencies of other foreign operations of the Group are the Euro, the United States dollar, the Romanian lei and Canadian dollar, which are the currencies of countries in which the Group's entities are incorporated.

On consolidation, assets and liabilities of Group companies reported in their functional currencies are translated into US dollars, the Group’s presentation currency, at year-end exchange rates. Income and expense items are translated into US dollars at the annual weighted average rates of exchange or at the rate on the date of the transaction for significant items.

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency at the rate ruling at the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the functional currency spot rate of exchange ruling at the end of reporting period. All resulting differences are taken to the income statement with the exception of differences on foreign currency borrowings accounted for as hedges of net investment in foreign operations. Nonmonetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates as at the dates of the initial transactions. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was determined.

The Group hedges its net investment in operations located in the Unites States against foreign currency risks using US dollar denominated liabilities. Gains or losses on the hedging instruments relating to the effective portion of the hedge are recognised as other comprehensive income while any gains or losses relating to the ineffective portion are recognised in the income statement. On the disposal of the foreign operation, the cumulative value of any such gains or losses recognised as a component of other comprehensive income is transferred to the income statement.

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