Significant Estimates and Assumptions

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation of uncertainty at the end of reporting period that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below:

Impairment of Property, Plant and Equipment

The Group assesses at each reporting date whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Group estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. This requires an estimation of the value in use of the cash-generating units to which the item is allocated. The determination of impairments of property, plant and equipment involves the use of estimates that include, but are not limited to, the cause, timing and amount of the impairment. Impairment is based on a large number of factors, such as changes in current competitive conditions, expectations of growth in the industry, increased cost of capital, changes in the future availability of financing, technological obsolescence, discontinuance of service, current replacement costs and other changes in circumstances that indicate impairment exists. The determination of the recoverable amount of a cash-generating unit involves the use of estimates by management.

Methods used to determine the value in use include discounted cash flow-based methods, which require the Group to make an estimate of the expected future cash flows from the cash-generating unit and also to choose a suitable discount rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows. These estimates, including the methodologies used, may have a material impact on the recoverable value and ultimately the amount of any property, plant and equipment impairment.

Assets that suffered an impairment are tested for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date if indications exist that impairment losses recognised in prior periods no longer exist or have decreased.

In 2011 and 2010, no impairment losses were recognised in respect of property, plant and equipment. In 2011, the Group reversed impairment losses of 73,417 recognised in 2008-2009 in respect of property, plant and equipment of European division cash-generating unit (Note 18).

Useful Lives of Items of Property, Plant and Equipment

The Group assesses the remaining useful lives of items of property, plant and equipment at least at each financial year-end. If expectations differ from previous estimates, the changes accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. There were no any changes in accounting estimates of remaining useful lives of items of property, plant and equipment in 2011.

Fair Value of Assets and Liabilities Acquired in Business Combinations

The Group is required to recognise separately, at the acquisition date, the identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities acquired or assumed in the business combination at their fair values, which involves estimates. Such estimates are based on valuation techniques, which require considerable judgment in forecasting future cash flows and developing other assumptions.

Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets with Indefinite Useful Lives

The Group determines whether goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are impaired at least on an annual basis. This requires an estimation of the value in use of the cashgenerating units to which the goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are allocated. Estimating the value in use requires the Group to make an estimate of the expected future cash flows from the cash-generating unit and also to choose a suitable discount rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows. The carrying amount of goodwill as at December 31, 2011 was 547,211 (2010: 554,353). In 2011, the Group recognised impairment losses in the amount of 3,368 in respect of goodwill (Note 19) (2010: nil).

Post-Employment Benefits

The Group uses the actuarial valuation method for measurement of the present value of postemployment benefit obligations and related current service cost. This involves the use of demographic assumptions about the future characteristics of current and former employees who are eligible for benefits (mortality, both during and after employment, rates of employee turnover, disability and early retirement, etc.) as well as financial assumptions (discount rate, future salary). In the event that further changes in the key assumptions are required, the future amounts of the post-employment benefit costs may be affected materially (Note 25).


The Group makes allowances for doubtful debts. Significant judgment is used to estimate doubtful accounts. In estimating doubtful accounts, such factors are considered as current overall economic conditions, industry-specific economic conditions, historical and anticipated customer performance. Changes in the economy, industry, or specific customer conditions may require adjustments to the allowance for doubtful debts recorded in the consolidated financial statements. As at December 31, 2011 and 2010, allowances for doubtful debts have been made in the amount of 31,782 and 17,947, respectively (Note 15, 20, 30).

The Group makes allowances for obsolete and slow-moving raw materials and spare parts. In addition, certain finished goods, work in process and raw materials of the Group are carried at net realisable value. Estimates of net realisable value of finished goods are based on the most reliable evidence available at the time the estimates are made. These estimates take into consideration fluctuations of price or cost directly relating to events occurring subsequent to the end of reporting period to the extent that such events confirm conditions existing at the end of the period. As at December 31, 2011 and 2010, allowances for net realisable value of inventory were 15,826 and 17,112, respectively (Note 16).


The Group exercises considerable judgment in measuring and recognising provisions and the exposure to contingent liabilities related to pending litigations or other outstanding claims subject to negotiated settlement, mediation, arbitration or government regulation, as well as other contingent liabilities. Judgement is necessary in assessing the likelihood that a pending claim will succeed, or a liability will arise, and to quantify the possible range of the final settlement. Because of the inherent uncertainties in this evaluation process, actual losses may differ from the originally estimated provision. These estimates are subject to change as new information becomes available, primarily with the support of internal specialists, if available, or with the support of external consultants, such as actuaries or legal counsel. Revisions to the estimates may significantly affect future operating results of the Group.

Current Taxes

The Group is subject to taxes in different countries all over the world. Taxes and fiscal risks recognised in these consolidated financial statements reflect management’s best estimate of the outcome based on the facts known at each reporting date in each individual country. These facts may include but are not limited to change in tax laws and interpretation thereof in the various jurisdictions where the Group operates.

Tax, currency and customs legislation is subject to varying interpretations and changes occur frequently. Furthermore, the interpretation of tax legislation by tax authorities as applied to the transactions and activity of the Group’s entities may not coincide with that of management.

As a result, tax authorities may challenge transactions and Group’s entities may be assessed additional taxes, penalties and interest, which can be significant. The final taxes paid are dependent upon many factors, including negotiations with taxing authorities in various jurisdictions, outcomes of tax litigation and resolution of disputes arising from tax audits. As at December 31, 2011, management believes that its interpretation of the relevant legislation is appropriate and that it is probable that the Group's tax, currency and customs positions will be sustained (Note 28).

Deferred Tax Assets

Management judgment is required for the calculation of deferred income taxes. Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that their utilisation is probable. The utilisation of deferred tax assets will depend on whether it is possible to generate sufficient taxable income in the respective tax type and jurisdiction. Various factors are used to assess the probability of the future utilisation of deferred tax assets, including past operating results, the operational plan, expiration of tax losses carried forward, and tax planning strategies. If actual results differ from these estimates or if these estimates are adjusted in future periods, the financial position, results of operations and cash flows may be negatively affected. In the event that the assessment of future utilisation indicates that the carrying amount of deferred tax assets must be reduced, this reduction is recognised in profit or loss.

Services & Tools

My Annual Report